Gregor Mendel Essay
Gregor Mendel played
a huge role in the underlying principles of genetic inheritance. Gregor was
born, July 22 1822 in Heinzendorf, Austrian Silesia (now known as Hyncice,
Czech Republic), with the name Johann Mendel. He changed his name to Gregor
in 1843. He grew up in an Augustinian brotherhood and he learned agricultural
training with basic education. He then went on to the Olmutz Philosophical
Institute and later entered the Augustinian Monastery in 1843. After 3 years
of theological studies, Mendel went to the University of Vienna, where 2 professors
influenced him; the physicist Doppler and a botanist named Unger. Here he learned
to study science through experimentation and aroused his interest in the causes
of variation in plants. He returned to Brunn in 1854 where he was a teacher
until 1868. Mendel died January 6 1884.
In 1857, Mendel began breeding garden
peas in the abbey garden to study inheritance, which lead to his law of Segregation
and independent assortment. Mendel observed several characteristics of the
garden peas which include: plant height (tallness/shortness), seed color (green/yellow),
seed shape (smooth/wrinkled), seed-coat color (gray/white), pod shape (full/constricted),
pod color (green/yellow), and flower distribution (along length/ at end of
stem). Mendel keep careful records of his experiments and first reported his
findings at a meeting of the Brunn Natural History Society. The results of
Mendel's work were published in 1866 as "Experiments with Plant Hybrids" in
the society's journal.
Mendel's Law of Segregation stated that the members
of a pair of homologous chromosomes segregate during meiosis and is distributed
to different gametes. This hypothesis can be divided into four main ideas.
The first idea is that alternative versions of genes account for variations
in inherited characters. Different alleles will create...
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Gregor Mendel's Fruit Flies Essay
613 Words3 Pages
Gregor Mendel's Fruit Flies
Introduction From simple heredity experiments with garden peas, to cloning sheep, the field of genetics has come a long way. Now we are closer to mapping out the human genetic map due to advances in technology, and years and years of research. Perhaps the most influential and groundbreaking scientist, Gregor Mendel, he was responsible to provide a path to where genetics is now today with his experiments of garden peas.
In lab, fruit flies were crossed to observe inheritance patterns in their offspring. The motivation for this was to further understand how genes and characteristics are inherited. To use fruit flies would be much more effective and easier because of a couple of reasons. The…show more content…
The F1?s were then observed and then crossed to form the F2 generation.
Genetic Hypothesis The F1 generation hypothesis is that with the Line A, B cross, the F1 for our group will be expected to be heterozygous dominant (VvBb) at both loci. This is because of the cross of Line A, which was consisting of Males with the genotype of vvBB, and of line B that were females with the genotype VVbb. As far as the F2 generations go, the phenotypes are expected to have a 9:3:3:1 ratio. There should be 9 brown, normal fruit flies, and 3 of each the brown, vestigial fly and the white, long fly. Finally, there is expected to be only one white, vestigial fly that possesses homozygous recessive alleles in both loci. There is a chance that there may be different outcomes to the F2 generation due to the possibility that the Line A and the Line B generation were not all homozygous dominant in wing type for females and eye color in males. Such a genotype in the males, vvBb, and such in females, Vvbb, may lead to a different ratio in the F2 offspring.
Methods In the lab section, we observed two vials containing the Line A and B species. In order for us to further examine the flies, we ?knocked out? the flies with a chemical anesthetic known as Fly Nap. Placing the wand covered in Fly Nap into the vial, we ?knocked out? the flies. We then spilled the flies onto a piece of paper and examined them under a light microscope. What were examined were