Synonym Article Essay Of Science

This article is about the general meaning of "synonym". For other uses, see Synonym (disambiguation).

A synonym is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language. Words that are synonyms are said to be synonymous, and the state of being a synonym is called synonymy. For example, the words begin, start, commence, and initiate are all synonyms of one another. Words are typically synonymous in one particular sense: for example, long and extended in the contextlong time or extended time are synonymous, but long cannot be used in the phrase extended family. Synonyms with the exact same meaning share a seme or denotational sememe, whereas those with inexactly similar meanings share a broader denotational or connotational sememe and thus overlap within a semantic field. The former are sometimes called cognitive synonyms and the latter, near-synonyms.[2]

Some lexicographers claim that no synonyms have exactly the same meaning (in all contexts or social levels of language) because etymology, orthography, phonic qualities, ambiguous meanings, usage, and so on make them unique. Different words that are similar in meaning usually differ for a reason: feline is more formal than cat; long and extended are only synonyms in one usage and not in others (for example, a long arm is not the same as an extended arm). Synonyms are also a source of euphemisms.

Metonymy can sometimes be a form of synonymy: the White House is used as a synonym of the administration in referring to the U.S. executive branch under a specific president. Thus a metonym is a type of synonym, and the word metonym is a hyponym of the word synonym.

The analysis of synonymy, polysemy, hyponymy, and hypernymy is inherent to taxonomy and ontology in the information-science senses of those terms. It has applications in pedagogy and machine learning, because they rely on word-sense disambiguation.

Etymology[edit]

The word comes from Ancient Greeksýn (σύν; "with") and ónoma (ὄνομα; "name").

Examples[edit]

Synonyms can be any part of speech, as long as both words belong to the same part of speech. Examples:

  • verb
  • adjective
  • adverb
  • preposition

Synonyms are defined with respect to certain senses of words: pupil as the aperture in the iris of the eye is not synonymous with student. Such like, he expired means the same as he died, yet my passport has expired cannot be replaced by my passport has died.

In English, many synonyms emerged in the Middle Ages, after the Norman conquest of England. While England's new ruling class spoke Norman French, the lower classes continued to speak Old English (Anglo-Saxon). Thus, today we have synonyms like the Norman-derived people, liberty and archer, and the Saxon-derived folk, freedom and bowman. For more examples, see the list of Germanic and Latinate equivalents in English.

A thesaurus lists similar or related words; these are often, but not always, synonyms.

  • The word poecilonym is a rare synonym of the word synonym. It is not entered in most major dictionaries and is a curiosity or piece of trivia for being an autological word because of its meta quality as a synonym of synonym.
  • Antonyms are words with opposite or nearly opposite meanings. For example: hotcold, largesmall, thickthin, synonymantonym
  • Hypernyms and hyponyms are words that refer to, respectively, a general category and a specific instance of that category. For example, vehicle is a hypernym of car, and car is a hyponym of vehicle.
  • Homophones are words that have the same pronunciation, but different meanings. For example, witch and which are homophones in most accents (because they are pronounced the same).
  • Homographs are words that have the same spelling, but have different pronunciations. For example, one can record a song or keep a record of documents.
  • Homonyms are words that have the same pronunciation and spelling, but have different meanings. For example, rose (a type of flower) and rose (past tense of rise) are homonyms.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]

Look up synonym in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Tools which graph words relations:

  • Graph Words – Online tool for visualization word relations
  • Synonyms.net – Online reference resource that provides instant synonyms and antonyms definitions including visualizations, voice pronunciations and translations
  • English/French Semantic Atlas – Graph words relations in English, French and gives cross representations for translations – offers 500 searches per user per day.

Plain words synonyms finder:

  • Synonym Finder – Synonym finder including hypernyms in search result
  • Thesaurus – Online synonyms in English, Italian, French and German
  • Woxikon Synonyms – Over 1 million synonyms – English, German, Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, Swedish and Dutch
  • Power Thesaurus – Thesaurus with synonyms ordered by rating
  • FindMeWords Synonyms – Online Synonym Dictionary with definitions

This article is about popular science as a literary genre. For the magazine, see Popular Science. For the short film series, see Popular Science (film). For references to science in culture, see Science in popular culture.

For a broader coverage related to this topic, see Science communication.

Popular science (also called pop-science or popsci) is an interpretation of science intended for a general audience. While science journalism focuses on recent scientific developments, popular science is more broad-ranging. It may be written by professional science journalists or by scientists themselves. It is presented in many forms, including books, film and television documentaries, magazine articles, and web pages.

Role[edit]

Popular science is a bridge between scientific literature as a professional medium of scientific research, and the realms of popular political and cultural discourse. The goal of the genre is often to capture the methods and accuracy of science, while making the language more accessible. Many science-related controversies are discussed in popular science books and publications, such as the long-running debates over biological determinism and the biological components of intelligence, stirred by popular books such as The Mismeasure of Man and The Bell Curve.[1]

The purpose of scientific literature is to inform and persuade peers as to the validity of observations and conclusions and the forensic efficacy of methods. Popular science attempts to inform and convince scientific outsiders (sometimes along with scientists in other fields) of the significance of data and conclusions and to celebrate the results. Statements in scientific literature are often qualified and tentative, emphasizing that new observations and results are consistent with and similar to established knowledge wherein qualified scientists are assumed to recognize the relevance. By contrast, popular science emphasizes uniqueness and generality, taking a tone of factual authority absent from the scientific literature. Comparisons between original scientific reports, derivative science journalism and popular science typically reveal at least some level of distortion and oversimplification which can often be quite dramatic, even with politically neutral scientific topics.[2]

Popular science literature can be written by non-scientists who may have a limited understanding of the subject they are interpreting and it can be difficult for non-experts to identify misleading popular science, which may also blur the boundaries between real science and pseudoscience. However, sometimes non-scientists with a fair scientific background make better popular science writers because of their ability to put themselves in the layperson's place more easily.

Common threads[edit]

Some usual features of popular science productions include:

  • Entertainment value or personal relevance to the audience
  • Emphasis on uniqueness and radicalness
  • Exploring ideas overlooked by specialists or falling outside of established disciplines
  • Generalized, simplified science concepts
  • Presented for an audience with little or no science background, hence explaining general concepts more thoroughly
  • Synthesis of new ideas that cross multiple fields and offer new applications in other academic specialties
  • Use of metaphors and analogies to explain difficult or abstract scientific concepts

Notable English-language popularizers of science[edit]

Main category: Science communicators

In alphabetical order by last name:

  • John Acorn, naturalist and broadcaster known as the "Nature Nut"
  • Amir Aczel, Jewish author and mathematician
  • Dallas Campbell, Presented Bang Goes the Theory
  • Maggie Aderin-Pocock, space scientist and broadcaster
  • Jim Al-Khalili, theoretical physicist, author and science communicator
  • Alan Alda, actor, who inspired The Center for Communicating Science
  • Michael Allaby, writes on science, ecology and weather
  • Elise Andrew, British blogger, founder and maintainer of the Facebook page "I Fucking Love Science"
  • Natalie Angier, science journalist and writer
  • Isaac Asimov, biochemist, science fiction writer and author
  • Peter Atkins, physical chemist and author
  • David Attenborough, naturalist and broadcaster
  • Francis Bacon, English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, & author
  • Johnny Ball, broadcaster and math popularizer
  • John D. Barrow, mathematician, theoretical physicist, and cosmologist; author of numerous journal articles, and books for general readers
  • Marcia Bartusiak, science journalist and author
  • David Bellamy, broadcaster, author, and botanist
  • Bob Berman, astronomer
  • Adrian Berry, science author and columnist
  • Howard Bloom, author
  • David Bodanis, author
  • Liz Bonnin, biochemist and TV presenter
  • Daniel J. Boorstin, author and Librarian of Congress
  • Sir David Brewster, Scottish scientist
  • John Brockman, specializing authorship in scientific literature
  • Jacob Bronowski, mathematician, biologist, historian of science, author and pioneering science broadcaster
  • Michael Brooks, noted for explaining complex scientific research
  • Bill Bryson, author
  • Rob Buckman, doctor of medicine, broadcaster, columnist, author
  • James Burke, broadcaster, television producer, and author; best known for the science historian BBC TV series Connections
  • Nigel Calder, broadcaster and journalist
  • Fritjof Capra, physicist and author
  • Sean Carroll, cosmologist, blogger, and author
  • Rachel Carson, marine biologist, conservationist, author
  • Marcus Chown, author and science journalist
  • Arthur C. Clarke, science fiction author, inventor, and futurist
  • Brian Clegg, author
  • Jack Cohen, reproductive biologist
  • Heather Couper, astronomer, broadcaster and author
  • Brian Cox, broadcaster, musician and physicist
  • Michael Crichton, medical doctor, author, filmmaker
  • Marek Kukula, public Astronomer at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich
  • Francis Crick, molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist; joint discoverer of the structure of the DNA molecule
  • Jon Culshaw, impressionist, also occasionally appears as a presenter on The Sky at Night
  • Paul Davies, physicist, author and broadcaster
  • Richard Dawkins, evolutionary biologist and author
  • Michael DeBakey, world-renowned cardiac surgeon, innovator, and author
  • Daniel Dennett, philosopher, cognitive scientist and author
  • Alexander Dewdney, mathematician, computer scientist and philosopher
  • Jared Diamond, evolutionary biologist, physiologist and geographer
  • Robin Dunbar, anthropology; evolutionary psychology, culture and language; and specialist in primate behaviour
  • Marcus Du Sautoy, author, broadcaster, Professor of Mathematics
  • David Eagleman, neuroscientist and author
  • Sir Arthur Eddington, astrophysicist
  • Gerald Edelman, from the immune system, analogously, to brain & mind
  • Loren Eiseley, Professor of Anthropology and History of Science
  • Peter Fairley, journalist and broadcaster
  • Michael Faraday, scientist and lecturer
  • Kenneth Feder, archaeologist, skeptic, lecturer, and author
  • Timothy Ferris, science writer and best-selling author of twelve books
  • Richard Feynman, physicist and author
  • Brian J. Ford, biologist, lecturer and author
  • Morgan Freeman, actor and host for TV's Through the Wormhole
  • George Gamow, physicist, cosmologist and author
  • Martin Gardner, mathematician, author, skeptic & polymath extraordinaire
  • Atul Gawande, surgeon and author
  • Malcolm Gladwell, journalist and author
  • James Gleick, author and journalist
  • Ben Goldacre, medical doctor, psychiatrist and author
  • Stephen Jay Gould, paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and science historian; author of numerous essays, articles, and books
  • Steve Grand, computer scientist and roboticist
  • Hank Green, entrepreneur, musician, and vlogger
  • John Green, author and vlogger
  • Brian Greene, physicist
  • Susan Greenfield, brain physiologist, writer and broadcaster
  • Richard Gregory, neuropsychologist, author and editor of several books
  • John Gribbin, astronomer and author
  • Heinz Haber, physicist and author
  • Thomas Hager, author and science journalist
  • J. B. S. Haldane, biologist and author
  • Jack Hanna, zoologist, broadcaster, author
  • Brady Haran, filmmaker
  • Bas Haring, philosopher and author
  • Sam Harris, neuroscientist and author
  • Lucy Hawking, journalist and daughter of Stephen Hawking
  • Stephen Hawking, theoretical physicist and author
  • Don Herbert, a.k.a. Mr. Wizard, broadcaster
  • Christopher Hitchens, author, journalist and essayist
  • Roald Hoffmann, chemist
  • Douglas Hofstadter, computer scientist, cognitive scientist and author
  • Lancelot Hogben, experimental zoologist and medical statistician, with many popularising books on science, mathematics and language
  • Fred Hoyle, British astronomer
  • Julian Huxley, eminent scientist, author, and first Director of UNESCO
  • Jamie Hyneman, special effects artist and TV personality (MythBusters)
  • Jay Ingram, broadcaster and author (Daily Planet)
  • Steve Irwin, wildlife expert and conservationist; TV personality of the worldwide-fame wildlife documentary TV series (The Crocodile Hunter)
  • Ray Jayawardhana, astrophysicist and author
  • Steven Johnson, author
  • Steve Jones, evolutionary biologist and author
  • Horace Freeland Judson, historian of molecular biology and author
  • Olivia Judson, evolutionary biologist, broadcaster and author
  • Michio Kaku, theoretical physicist and author
  • Lawrence Krauss, physicist and author
  • Robert Krulwich, broadcaster
  • Karl Kruszelnicki, a.k.a. Dr Karl, broadcaster
  • Richard Leakey, Kenyan paleoanthropologist and conservationist
  • John Lennox, mathematician and author
  • Daniel Levitin, cognitive neuroscientist and author
  • Roger Lewin, British anthropologist
  • Richard Lewontin, evolutionary biologist, geneticist and author
  • Chris Lintott, astrophysicist
  • Bob McDonald, CBC journalist and host of Quirks and Quarks
  • Alister McGrath, molecular biologist and author
  • Lynn Margulis, evolutionary biologist and author
  • Robert Matthews, physicist, mathematician, computer scientist, and distinguished science journalist
  • Danica McKellar, actress, author, mathematician
  • Peter Medawar, biologist, called by Richard Dawkins "the wittiest of all scientific writers"[3] and by New Scientist "perhaps the best science writer of his generation".[4]
  • Fulvio Melia, physicist, astrophysicist and author
  • Ben Miller, English comedian and hosted shows such as It's Not Rocket Science (TV series)
  • Julius Sumner Miller, physicist and broadcaster
  • Mark Miodownik, materials scientist, engineer, broadcaster and writer
  • Ashley Montagu, anthropologist and humanist, authored by over 60 books
  • Sir Patrick Moore, amateur astronomer and broadcaster
  • Desmond Morris, zoologist, ethologist and author
  • Philip Morrison, physicist, known for his numerous books & TV programs
  • Randall Munroe, writer of What if blog
  • PZ Myers, professor and author of the science blog Pharyngula[5]
  • Yoshiro Nakamatsu, Japanese inventor
  • Jayant Narlikar, cosmologist and author
  • Steven Novella, skeptic and advocate of science-based medicine
  • Bill Nye, broadcaster and mechanical engineer, called the Science Guy
  • Tor Nørretranders, author
  • Sten Odenwald, astronomer, author, lecturer
  • Robert Olby, author and historian of science
  • Chad Orzel, physicist and author
  • Linus Pauling, one of the most influential chemists in history and ranks among the most important scientists of the 20th century
  • John Allen Paulos, mathematician and author
  • Fred Pearce, journalist at New Scientist
  • Yakov I. Perelman, author
  • Steven Pinker, experimental psychologist, cognitive scientist and author
  • Phil Plait, astronomer and skeptic who runs the Bad Astronomy website
  • Martyn Poliakoff, British chemist, featured in the YouTube The Periodic Table of Videos series
  • John Polkinghorne, physicist and author
  • Robert Pollack, biologist and author
  • Carolyn Porco, leader of Cassini Imaging Team
  • Roy Porter, prolific work on the history of medicine
  • Christopher Potter, publisher, philosopher and author
  • Magnus Pyke, food scientist, broadcaster and author
  • V. S. Ramachandran, neuroscientist, cognitive scientist and author
  • James Randi, stage magician, skeptic and author
  • Lisa Randall, theoretical physicist and author
  • Mark Ridley, zoologist, evolutionary scientist and author
  • Matt Ridley, zoologist, journalist and author
  • Alice Roberts, anatomist, anthropologist, television presenter and author
  • Steven Rose, biologist, neurobiologist, broadcaster and author
  • Oliver Sacks, neurologist and author
  • Carl Sagan, astrobiologist, astronomer, broadcaster and author
  • Kirsten Sanford, neurophysiologist and broadcaster
  • Adam Savage, special effects artist and TV personality (MythBusters)
  • Eric Scerri, chemist, historian and philosopher of science, and author
  • Joseph A. Schwarcz, chemist, author, TV and radio host
  • Garrett P. Serviss, American astronomer and science fiction writer
  • Seth Shostak, astronomer, broadcaster and author
  • Neil Shubin, paleontologist, evolutionary biologist
  • George Gaylord Simpson, paleontologist, zoologist and author
  • Simon Singh, physicist, mathematician and author
  • Edwin Emery Slosson, chemist, journalist and editor
  • Laura J. Snyder, historian, philosopher, and author
  • Mary Somerville, polymath, mathematician, and author
  • Michael Stevens, science-based YouTube content creator
  • Iain Stewart, geologist and broadcaster
  • Ian Stewart, mathematician and author
  • David Suzuki, broadcaster, geneticist and environmental activist
  • Lewis Thomas, physician, poet, etymologist, and essayist
  • Chriet Titulaer, Dutch astronomer, author and broadcaster
  • Colin Tudge, biologist and author
  • Neil deGrasse Tyson, astrophysicist and author
  • Fred Watson, astrophysicist, musician and author
  • Kevin Warwick, biomedical scientist, roboticist and author
  • Michael White, musician and science writer
  • Norbert Wiener, mathematician, author; the father of cybernetics
  • Robert Winston, medical doctor, scientist, TV presenter and author
  • Richard Wiseman, psychologist and author
  • Stephen Wolfram, mathematics, theoretical physics, scientific computing
  • Lewis Wolpert, developmental biologist, author and broadcaster
  • Peter Wothers, chemist and author
  • Carl Zimmer, science writer and author of the science blog The Loom[6]
  • Marlene Zuk, evolutionary biologist and behaviorial ecologist

Some sources of popular science[edit]

See also: List of science magazines and List of science books

Main category: Popular science

  • ABC Science – website[7] owned by Australian Broadcasting Corporation
  • Are We Alone? – Seth Shostak science radio program
  • Ask A Biologist – audio podcast program and website
  • Asapscience - YouTube channel
  • BBC Focus – magazine
  • BBC Horizon – TV series
  • BBC Science & Nature – latest news in nature[8] and science[9]
  • BBC Sky at Night – a monthly magazine about astronomy aimed at amateur astronomers
  • BEYOND: Center for Fundamental Concepts in Science – website of Arizona State University[10]
  • British Science Association – providing all ages learning about the sciences; advancing public understanding; thought-provoking its many implications
  • CASW: Council for the Advancement of Science Writing – increasing public understanding of science[11]
  • CBS News – Science[12] 60 Minutes: Health/Science[13] Nature[14] This Morning: HealthWatch[15] Evening News: Health[16] Sunday Morning: Nature[17]
  • Cosmos Magazine – Australian magazine
  • Cosmos: A Personal Voyage – 1980 television series by Carl Sagan, with its companion book
  • Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey – 2014 television hosted by Neil deGrasse Tyson based on the 1980 Carl Sagan series
  • Daily Planet – Canadian television series
  • Discover – magazine
  • Discovery – BBC World Service radio programme[18] and podcasts[19]
  • Discovery Channel – cable/satellite television channel
  • Edge – online magazine exploring scientific and intellectual ideas
  • Exploratorium – museum in San Francisco
  • Frontiers of Science – comic strip
  • Guru Magazine – digital 'science-lifestyle' magazine
  • HowStuffWorks – website
  • Inside Science – BBC Radio 4 news stories keeping the audience abreast of important breakthroughs in science[20]
  • Inside Science (AIP) – syndicating research news and related topics for general audiences through the press, the TV, and the web[21]
  • Institute of Making – materials science and technology from many different perspectives
  • ITV Science News – videos, stories, and the latest live updates[22]
  • Leading Edge – BBC Radio 4 series explores the world of science, people, passions & policies; final edition celebrating Darwin's 150th anniversary[23]
  • Learners Infinite Science Foundation - A privately owned Science Webservice intended for creating awarness about Science and its principles.[24]
  • The Life Scientific – Jim Al-Khalili talks to leading scientists about their life and work (BBC Radio 4)[25]
  • Little Atoms – weekly chat show on Resonance104.4FM in London; also podcasts
  • LiveScience – syndicating major news outlets with an online news-magazine format
  • Material World (radio programme) – weekly science magazine on BBC Radio 4
  • MITnews:science – Massachusetts Institute of Technology's recent news, featured stories, and videos[26]
  • MIT Technology Review – a magazine with authoritative journalism in clear simple language
  • Mr Science Show – radio show and podcast from China Radio International
  • MythBusters – American TV series that seeks to confirm or debunk science-related stories, urban legends, viral videos, etc.
  • The Naked Scientists – audience-interactive radio talk show
  • NASA – news, images, videos, TV, and interactive features from the unique perspective of America's space agency
  • National Geographic Society – one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world
  • Natural History – magazine of the American Museum of Natural History
  • Natural History Museum (London) – "Nature online – explore the natural world"[27]
  • NBC News – Science[28] Technology[29] Health[30]
  • New Scientist – magazine
  • NHS choices – UK health "Behind the Headlines ¬ Your guide to the science that makes the news"[31]
  • Nova – television show on PBS; PBS Science & Nature[32] PBS NewsHour: Science[33] and the Nova ScienceNow TV spinoff
  • Nova: science in the news – Australian Academy of Science making accessible, and looking behind the headlines[34]
  • The Periodic Table of Videos – a series of YouTube videos featuring chemistry professor Martyn Poliakoff
  • PLOS: Public Library of Science – available to every scientist, physician, educator and citizens at home, in school, or in a library
  • Plus – popular maths online magazine featuring the beauty and the practical; diverse topics such as art, medicine, cosmology, sport, puzzles & games
  • Popular Mechanics - magazine
  • Popular Science – magazine
  • Popular Science Historic Film Series – short films
  • Quirks & Quarks – Canadian radio show and podcast on CBC Radio; CBCnews Technology & Science[35]
  • Quo – Spanish-language magazine
  • Radiolab – listen, read, watch; imaginative use of radio and podcast making science accessible to broad audiences
  • The Ri Channel – the Royal Institution, showcasing science videos from around the web[36]
  • Science – journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science
  • Science (TV network) – cable/satellite television channel
  • ScienceBlogs – some of the best-known independent science bloggers within ten subject channels
  • science fantastic – Michio Kaku radio program[37]
  • Science Friday – American radio show on NPR; NPR Science[38]
  • The Science Hour – BBC World Service radio programme weekly digest of Discovery, Click, Health Check and Science in Action[39] and podcasts[40]
  • Science Illustrated – popular magazine with editions in other languages
  • Science in Action (radio programme) – long-running weekly broadcast on BBC World Service
  • Science Museum (London) – "Online Science"[41]
  • Science News – magazine
  • Science Niblets – online magazine[42]
  • Science World (magazine) – especially educating children and covering many aspects
  • Scientific American – magazine
  • Seed – magazine
  • Smithsonian – magazine published by the Smithsonian Institution
  • Startalk Radio - hosted by Neil deGrasse Tyson
  • Technologist – magazine and website published by the EuroTech Universities Alliance
  • This Week in Science – American radio show and podcast
  • Through the Wormhole – documentary television series with Morgan Freeman
  • VOA News – Voice of America's latest news in science and technology[43] and VOA's Science World[44]
  • WIRED – WIRED Science[45] WIRED Science Blogs[46] WIRED UK Science[47]
  • ZSL: Institute of Zoology (London) – "Latest News from Science"[48]
  • L

Science media[edit]

Science in the headlines[edit]

News online[edit]

News agencies

Press[edit]

Daily newspapers

Weeklies

Fortnightlies

Monthlies

Bimonthlies

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • McRae, Murdo William (editor). The Literature of Science: Perspectives on Popular Scientific Writing. The University of Georgia Press: Athens, 1993. ISBN 0-8203-1506-0

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