Bosmina Longirostris Classification Essay

Geographic Range

Bosmina longirostris is one of the 620 species that are commonly called water fleas. Bosmina longirostris is found in freshwater lakes and ponds throughout the world in temperate and tropical climates including Nearctic, Palearctic, Neotropical and Ethiopian regions. These regions include parts of Africa, Europe and the United States. (Genung, 2012; Threlkeld, 1981; Zaret and Kerfoot, 1975)

Habitat

Bosmina longirostris are commonly found in ponds and lakes. They are also found in the littoral zones of temperate and tropical bog lakes. (De Melo and Hebert, 1994; Threlkeld, 1981; Zaret and Kerfoot, 1975; Zaret and Kerfoot, 1980)

Close relatives of B. longirostris can live in waters with weak currents, and are often found near the surface of the water, where the concentration of algae, their food source, is highest. (Miller, 2000)

Physical Description

These animals are called water fleas because their physical appearance and movements resemble those of land fleas. This common name also applies to 620 different species. The members of B. longirostris are sexually dimorphic; females have large antennules that curve back over the head which are absent in males. Females range in size from 0.4 to 0.6 mm long, while males range from 0.4 to 0.5 mm long. Both sexes have a mucro, a sharp point attached on their head which varies in length by location. The function of mucro in B. longirostris is unknown. However, the mucro serves to distinguish B. longirostris from their very close relative, Eubosmina sp., which lack this structure. They also have a carapace, which looks like a folded shell that covers the animal and opens on both the ventral and posterior sides. The length of both mucro and carapace vary in season, decreasing in the summer due to increased predation risk with size. (DeMott and Kerfoot, 1982; Miller, 2000; Shaharudin and Saisho, 2011; Urabe, 1991; Zaret and Kerfoot, 1980)

Water fleas are ectothermic. (Anestis, 2006)

  • female larger
  • sexes shaped differently

Development

Immediately after hatching, body length is approximately 0.21 mm. When food is scarce, B. longirostris stop growing after maturation and use all of their energy for reproduction. If food concentration is high, they will continue to grow after sexual maturation. Reaching maturation takes between 3.14 to 5.83 days from birth. The length of the carapace grows from their birth to 20 days; however their rate of growth decreases with age. (Miller, 2000; Zaret and Kerfoot, 1980)

When females lay eggs, they hatch to become juveniles. They are considered adults once they are larger than the smallest egg carrying female. (Jankowski, 2004)

Reproduction

There are three different types of mating systems that B. longirostris use to reproduce: Sexual reproduction, cyclical parthenogenesis and obligate parthenogenesis. Bosmina longirostris are polygynandrous, so both males and females have multiple mates. (Little, et al., 1997; Miller, 2000; Zaret and Kerfoot, 1980)

Reproduction of B. longirostris is highly dependent on the environment. When B. longirostris go through parthenogenesis, a form of asexual reproduction, they produce the same gender that of the parent, however there is little information available about parthenogenesis of B. longirostris. Studies of Bosmina in temperate regions have shown they reproduce by using facultative parthenogenesis, allowing them to reproduce sexually or by parthenogenesis; wheras other Bosmina sp. in arctic lakes reproduce using obligate parthenogenesis, meaning they can only reproduce asexually. Bosmina longirostris breed throughout the year but are more active from May to June and August to September when algae grows more rapidly. Their reproductive rates are dependent upon how much food is available. (Bothar, 1986; Hanazato and Yasuno, 1987; Little, et al., 1997; Urabe, 1991)

Female B. longirostris are known as sexually mature when they first have eggs in their brood pouch. This species matures faster if more food is available. Varying food concentrations can also cause differences in the number of eggs produced; if more food is available, they produce more eggs (up to four eggs at a time). During their life span, females typically lay anywhere from 1 to 11 eggs. (Branstrator and Lehman, 1991; Hanazato and Yasuno, 1987; Jankowski, 2004; Urabe, 1991)

Female B. longirostris carry the eggs (up to two eggs) in their brood pouch until the eggs hatch and become free living and independent. (Urabe, 1991)

  • pre-hatching/birth
    • provisioning
    • protecting

Lifespan/Longevity

Bosmina longirostris generally live little more than 20 days; however, when food is scarce, they may live up to only 10 days. (Hanazato and Yasuno, 1987)

Behavior

The behavior of B. longirostris is primarily driven by the presence of food. Their population density increases at a faster rate when more food is available, and they tend to aggregate in areas where food and light are abundant. Studies of close relatives of B. longirostris indicate that they are able to swim horizontally by stroking their appendages. Males swim faster than females due to less dragging resistance. Females have higher resistance due to their bigger body size and large antennules. (Hanazato and Yasuno, 1987; Lord, et al., 2006; Urabe, 1991)

Communication and Perception

There is little information available on the communication and perception of B. longirostris; however, its closely related species, Daphnia sp. communicate using chemical signals, and have one black compound eye that detects light. (Larsson and Dodson, 1993; McCoole, et al., 2011)

Food Habits

Bosmina longirostris are mainly filter feeders. They eat protozoa, diatoms, and other alge ranging in size from 10 to 15 µm. They prey on Cyclotella, Microcystis, and Chlorella. Filter-feeding is achieved by five pairs of thoracic limbs that are developed for grasping food particles. Large particles can be grasped by the first three thoracic limbs, while the fourth and fifth pairs filter small particles. The first two pairs of thoracic limbs can be used to push the food inside the food groove, while the third to fifth pairs act as filter. In this filter mechanism, small food particles are collected and pushed into the food groove. The feeding system of Bosmina sp. is more efficient in low food densities. The filter structure of other members of the genus Bosmina. is known to be poorly developed, and they are generally less efficient filter feeders than Daphnia sp. They are generally not selective feeders; however, when they have to compete with Daphnia species they switch their preferences. (Branstrator and Lehman, 1991; DeMott and Kerfoot, 1982; Hanazato and Yasuno, 1987)

Predation

Bosmina longirostris is preyed upon many different invertebrate predators, such as Chaoborus, cyclopoid copepods, Mysis relicta, Leptodora kindtii, Epischura lacustris, Limnocalanus macrurus, and Senecella calanoides. They are also an important primary food source for planktivorous fish, including young whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis).

During daylight these animals sometimes form dense aggregations, as many as 9000 individuals per liter of water. These groups often significantly reduce the food supply in their location but stay together anyway until night. Because they only group together in daylight, and do so even when this reduces food availability, it is believed that this behavior is predator avoidance, possibly a "Selfish Herd" phenomenon. (Branstrator and Lehman, 1991; Jakobsen and Johnsen, 1988)

Ecosystem Roles

Bosmina longirostris compete with closely related species for food. They are algivores, and serve as first consumers. Also, along with other zooplankton, B. longirostris are preyed upon by fishes. They are important zooplankton species linking bacteria and algae to higher trophic levels. (Acharya, et al., 2005; Branstrator and Lehman, 1991)

Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

There is no direct positive importance for humans. However, B. longirostris play important role in the food web as they are a good source of food for many aquatic organisms. Also, because they filter-feed on algae, they can improve water clarity. (Acharya, et al., 2005)

Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

Too many B. longirostris concentrated in one area can reduce the oxygen level in the water, which can have a negative impact on fishes. (Miller, 2000)

Conservation Status

Bosmina longirostris are known to thrive in ponds and lakes. They are not considered to require conservation efforts, and have not been evaluated by the IUCN Red List program.

Contributors

Andy Lee (author), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, Alison Gould (editor), University of Michigan-Ann Arbor, George Hammond (editor), Animal Diversity Web Staff.

References

Acharya, K., J. Jack, P. Bukaveckas. 2005. Dietary effects on life history traits of riverine Bosmina. Freshwater Biology, 50: 965-975.

Anestis, M. 2006. AP Biology. New York City, NY: McGrawHill.

Balcer, M., N. Korda, S. Dodson. 1984. Zooplankton of the Great Lakes: A Guide to the Identification and Ecology of the Comon Crustacean Species. Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin Pres..

Bothar, A. 1986. POPULATION-DYNAMICS AND ESTIMATION OF PRODUCTION IN BOSMINA-LONGIROSTRIS (MULLER,O.F.) IN THE RIVER DANUBE (DANUBIALIA HUNGARICA, CVIII). Hydrobiologia, 140/2: 97-104.

Bothar, A. 1987. THE ESTIMATION OF PRODUCTION AND MORTALITY OF BOSMINA-LONGIROSTRIS (MULLER,O.F.) IN THE RIVER DANUBE (DANUBIALIA HUNGARICA, CIX). Hydrobiologia, 145: 285-291.

Branstrator, D., J. Lehman. 1991. INVERTEBRATE PREDATION IN LAKE-MICHIGAN - REGULATION OF BOSMINA-LONGIROSTRIS BY LEPTODORA-KINDTII. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY, 36/3: 483-495. Accessed February 03, 2012 at .

De Melo, R., P. Hebert. 1994. A TAXONOMIC REEVALUATION OF NORTH-AMERICAN BOSMINIDAE. CANADIAN JOURNAL OF ZOOLOGY-REVUE CANADIENNE DE ZOOLOGIE, 72/10: 1808-1825.

DeMott, W., C. Kerfoot. 1982. Competition Among Cladocerans: Nature of the Interaction Between Bosmina and Daphnia. Ecology, 63/6: 1949-1966.

Ertan, O., Z. Guclu, O. Erdogan, S. Savas, I. Gulle. 2011. Population Growth of Bosmina longirostris Fed Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus subspicatus in Different Densities. ISRAELI JOURNAL OF AQUACULTURE-BAMIDGEH, 63: 1-7.

Genung, A. 2012. "Zooplankton of the Great Lakes" (On-line). Central Michigan University. Accessed March 25, 2012 at .

Hanazato, T., M. Yasuno. 1987. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON COMPETITION BETWEEN BOSMINA-LONGIROSTRIS AND BOSMINA-FATALIS. Hydrobiologia, 154: 189-199.

Jakobsen, P., G. Johnsen. 1988. THE INFLUENCE OF FOOD LIMITATION ON SWARMING BEHAVIOR IN THE WATERFLEA BOSMINA-LONGISPINA. Anim. Behav., 36: 991-995.

Jankowski, T. 2004. Predation of freshwater jellyfish on Bosmina: the consequences for population dynamics, body size, and morphology. HYDROBIOLOGIA, 530/SI: 521-528.

Kotov, A., S. Ishida, D. Taylor. 2009. Revision of the genus Bosmina Baird, 1845 (Cladocera: Bosminidae), based on evidence from male morphological characters and molecular phylogenies. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 156/1: 1-51.

Larsson, P., S. Dodson. 1993. INVITED REVIEW - CHEMICAL COMMUNICATION IN PLANKTONIC ANIMALS. Archiv Fur Hydrobiologie, 129/2: 129-155.

Little, T., R. Demelo, D. Taylor, P. Hebert. 1997. Genetic Characterization of an Arctic Zooplankter: Insights into Geographic Polyploidy. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B-Biological Sciences, 264/1386: 1363-1370.

Lord, H., R. Lagergren, J. Svensson, N. Lundgvist. 2006. Sexual dimorphism in Bosmina: The role of morphology, drag, and swimming. Ecology, 87/3: 788-795.

McCoole, M., K. Baer, A. Christie. 2011. Histaminergic signaling in the central nervous system of Daphnia and a role for it in the control of phototactic behavior. Journal of Experimental Biology, 214/10: 1773-1782.

Miller, C. 2000. "Daphnia pulex" (On-line). Animal Diversity Web. Accessed March 25, 2012 at .

Per, J., J. Geir. 1988. THE INFLUENCE OF FOOD LIMITATION ON SWARMING BEHAVIOR IN THE WATERFLEA BOSMINA-LONGISPINA. ANIMAL BEHAVIOUR, 36: 991-995.

Sakamoto, M., K. Chang, T. Hanazato. 2007. Plastic phenotypes of antennule shape in Bosmina longirostris controlled by physical stimuli from predators. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY, 52/5: 2072-2078.

Sakamoto, M., T. Hanazato. 2009. Proximate factors controlling the morphologic plasticity of Bosmina: linking artificial laboratory treatments and natural conditions. HYDROBIOLOGIA, 617: 171-179.

Sakamoto, M., T. Hanzato. 2008. Antennule shape and body size of Bosmina: key factors determining its vulnerability of predacious Copepoda. LIMNOLOGY, 9/1: 27-34.

Shaharudin, R., T. Saisho. 2011. Cyclomorphism in Bosmina longirostris (Crustacea:Cladocera) from Lake Ikeda, Japan. SAINS MALAYSIANA, 40/6: 543-547.

Tanera, M., J. Carletona, M. Wellmana. 2011. Integrated model projections of climate change impacts on a North American lake. ECOLOGICAL MODELLING, 222/18: 3380-3393.

Threlkeld, S. 1981. THE RECOLONIZATION OF LAKE TAHOE BY BOSMINA-LONGIROSTRIS - EVALUATING THE IMPORTANCE OF REDUCED MYSIS-RELICTA POPULATION. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY, 26/3: 433-444.

Urabe, J. 1991. EFFECT OF FOOD CONCENTRATION ON GROWTH, REPRODUCTION AND SURVIVORSHIP OF BOSMINA-LONGIROSTRIS (CLADOCERA) - AN EXPERIMENTAL-STUDY. Freshwater Biology, 25/1: 1-8.

Von Ende, C., D. Dempsey. 1981. APPARENT EXCLUSION OF THE CLADOCERAN BOSMINA-LONGIROSTRIS BY INVERTEBRATE PREDATOR CHAOBORUS-AMERICANUS. AMERICAN MIDLAND NATURALIST, 105/2: 240-248.

Zaret, R., C. Kerfoot. 1980. SHAPE AND SWIMMING TECHNIQUE OF BOSMINA-LONGIROSTRIS. LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY, 25/1: 126-133.

Zaret, T., C. Kerfoot. 1975. FISH PREDATION ON BOSMINA-LONGIROSTRIS - BODY-SIZE SELECTION VERSUS VISIBILITY SELECTION. ECOLOGY, 56/1: 232-237.


Bosminalongirostris ist eine Krebsart aus der Gattung Bosmina. Sie ist häufig in Teichen anzutreffen, in Seen kommt sie in der Nähe des Ufers sowie im Pelagial und in der Tiefe vor. MerkmaleBearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten. Die Furca- Krallen befinden sich auf einem kurzen Fortsatz des Hinterkörpers. Der Fortsatz weist.

Bosminalongirostris is one of the 620 species that are commonly called water fleas. Bosminalongirostris is found in freshwater lakes and ponds throughout the world in temperate and tropical climates including Nearctic, Palearctic, Neotropical and Ethiopian regions. These regions include parts of Africa, Europe and the.

Bosminalongirostris could be confused with Eubosmina longispina, which is distinguished by a sensory bristle near the tip of the rostrum, whereas B. longirostris has a sensory bristle midway between the eye and the tip of the rostrum. Geographic Distribution. Bosminalongirostris is ubiquitous and occurs in temperate and.

Experts. Expert Notes Reference for Other Sources. Source American Fisheries Society Special Publication 31, pre-press version 18-May-04. Acquired 2004. Notes McLaughlin et al. 2005. Common and Scientific Names of Aquatic Invertebrates from the United States and Canada Crustaceans. American Fisheries.


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Key characteristics This species is very similar to B. longispina. Seen from the side it has an almost circular shape. The head is evenly rounded anteriorly, ventrally it proudes into a fairly long ventrally directed rostrum, looking like it is a part of the body. As in B. longispina the dorsal edge of the carapace is strongly arched.

Zooplankton of the Great Lakes. Classification. Kingdom - Animalia Phylum - Arthropoda Subphylum - Crustacea Class - Branchiopoda Order - Cladocera Sub-Order - Eucladocera Family - Bosminidae Genus - Bosmina Species - longirostris. Bosminalongirostris was identified by O. F. Muller in 1785. Taxonomic History. Bosmina are notorious for

The cladoceran Bosminalongirostris was ranked first in density and biomass of the metazoan zooplankton in a Brazilian reservoir. However, although the rotifer P. vulgaris was second in density, it was sixth in biomass Figure 13.35. In fact, the mean change in position of the species based on a ranking of number of individuals to one based on


Key characteristics This species is very similar to B. longispina. Seen from the side it has an almost circular shape. The head is evenly rounded anteriorly, ventrally it proudes into a fairly long ventrally directed rostrum, looking like it is a part of the body. As in B. longispina the dorsal edge of the carapace is strongly arched.

Zooplankton of the Great Lakes. Classification. Kingdom - Animalia Phylum - Arthropoda Subphylum - Crustacea Class - Branchiopoda Order - Cladocera Sub-Order - Eucladocera Family - Bosminidae Genus - Bosmina Species - longirostris. Bosminalongirostris was identified by O. F. Muller in 1785. Taxonomic History. Bosmina are notorious for

The cladoceran Bosminalongirostris was ranked first in density and biomass of the metazoan zooplankton in a Brazilian reservoir. However, although the rotifer P. vulgaris was second in density, it was sixth in biomass Figure 13.35. In fact, the mean change in position of the species based on a ranking of number of individuals to one based on


Bosminalongirostris is a species of water flea found in the Great Lakes and Central Europe. It is found in the plankton near the shoreline of lakes and ponds.

Bosminalongirostris could be confused with Eubosmina longispina, which is distinguished by a sensory bristle near the tip of the rostrum, whereas B. longirostris has a sensory bristle midway between the eye and the tip of the rostrum. Geographic Distribution Bosminalongirostris is ubiquitous and occurs in temperate and tropical

Subspecies BosminaBosminalongirostris cornuta Jurine, 1820 accepted as BosminaBosminalongirostris O. F. Müller, 1785 synonym Subspecies BosminaBosminalongirostris curvirostris Fischer, 1854 accepted as BosminaBosminalongirostris O. F. Müller, 1785 synonym Subspecies BosminaBosmina

Key words competition, Bosminalongirostris, Bosmina fatalis, food density, Microcystis Abstract The effects of food density on competition between Bosminalongirostris and Bosmina fatalis from Lake Kasumigaura were examined in the laboratory. When the animals were reared with a high concentration of Chlorella, B.


Bosmina is a genus in the order Cladocera, the water fleas. Its members can be distinguished from those of Bosminopsis the only other genus in the family Bosminidae by the separation of the antennae; in Bosminopsis, the antennae are fused at their bases.

Read about Bosminalongirostris on the Animal Diversity Web.

Glycogen. Glycogen is a polysaccharide consisting of glucose bound to protein. The content of glycogen was determined by Blazka 1966 23% in Bosminalongirostris.



Bosmina longirostris klassifikationsaufsatz:

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